The following reference list was created primarily by Charlie Farrington, with additional input by Natalie Schilling. While we were writing our American Speech article, “Contextualizing the Corpus of Regional African American Language:DC: AAL in the Nation’s Capital”, we decided to compile a more bibliographical reference on the history of D.C. AAL, but also to include several linguist-adjacent publications concerning D.C. (including sociological and sociohistorical descriptions).

Update (November 2019): References now include all research articles from the CORAAL special issue of American Speech.

D.C. Area AAL References

Anderson, Edmund. 1970. A Grammatical Overview of Baltimore Non-standard Negro English. Baltimore, MD: Center for the Study of Social Organization of Schools.

Arnson, Shelby, and Charlie Farrington. 2017. “Twentieth Century Sound Change in Washington, D.C. African American English.” University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 23.2.

Bachmann, James. 1969. A Comparison of Nonstandard Grammatical Usage in some Negro and White Working-Class Families in Alexandria, Virginia. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

Callier, Patrick, Jermay Jamsu, and Jinsok Lee. 2009. “A Diachronic Study of /ay/ Monophthongization in Washington, D.C.” Paper presented at NWAV 38, Ottawa, Canada.

Carroll, William S. 1971. A Phonology of Washington Negro Speech. PhD diss., Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

Cukor-Avila, Patricia, and Ashley Balcazar. 2019. "Exploring grammatical variation in the Corpus of Regional African American Language." American Speech 94.1: 36-53.

Dillard, Joey L. 1967. Negro children’s dialect in the inner city.

Dillard, Joey L. 1972. Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States. New York: Random House.

Farrington, Charlie. 2018. Incomplete neutralization in African American English: The case of final consonant voicing. Language Variation and Change 30.3: 361-383.

Farrington, Charlie. 2019. Language Variation and the Great Migration: Regionality and African American Language. Ph.D. diss., University of Oregon, Eugene, OR.

Fasold, Ralph W. 1969. “Tense and the form be in Black English.” Language 45.4: 763-776.

Fasold, Ralph W. 1972. Tense Marking in Black English. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Fasold, Ralph W., William Labov, Fay Boyd Vaughn-Cooke, Guy Bailey, Walt Wolfram, Arthur K. Spears, and John Rickford. 1987. “Are Black and White Vernaculars Diverging?” Papers from the NWAVE XIV Panel Discussion. American Speech 62.1: 3-80.

Forrest, Jon, and Walt Wolfram. 2019. "The status of (ING) in African American Language: A quantitative analysis of social factors and internal constraints." American Speech 94.1: 72-90.

Gregersen, Frans. 2009. “Forgængere og Bagmænd: Om Forholdet Mellem Dialektforskning og Sociolingvistik på og rundt om Afdeling for Dialektforskning.” In Dialektforskning i 100 år, edited by Asgerd Gudiksen, Henrik Hovmark, Pia Quist, Jann Scheuer, and Iben Stampe Sletten, 83-106. København: Nordisk Forskningsinstitut.

Grieser, Jessica. 2012. “[t]inking about Takoma: Race, Style and Identity at D.C.’s Border.” Texas Linguistics Forum 55.

Grieser, Jessica. 2013. “Locating Style: Style-Shifting to Characterize Community at the Border of Washington, D.C.” University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 19.2.

Grieser, Jessica. 2015. The Language of Professional Blackness: African American English at the Intersection of Race, Place, and Class in Southeast, Washington, D.C. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

Grieser, Jessica. 2019. "Investigating topic-based style shifting in the classic sociolinguistic interview." American Speech 94.1: 54-71.

Harms, L. Stanley. 1961. “Listener Judgments of Status Cues in Speech.” Quarterly Journal of Speech 46.2: 164-168.

Harms, L. Stanley. 1963. “Status cues in speech: Extra-race and extra-region identification.” Lingua 12: 300-306.

Holliday, Nicole R. 2019. "Variation in question intonation in the Corpus of Regional African American Language." American Speech 94.1: 110-130.

Joseph, John E. 2002. “The Origins of American Sociolinguistics.” Chapter 5 in From Whitney to Chomsky: Essays in the History of American Linguistics, 107-131. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Kendall, Tyler. 2010. Accomodating (ING): individual variation in mixed-ethnicity interviews. In Barry Heselwood, and Clive Upton (eds.), Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Methods in Dialectology (Methods XIII). Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Kendall, Tyler, Christine Mallinson, and Kaye Whitehead. 2007. "New ways of analyzing African American English: Examining the speech of adolescent girls in Washington, D.C." Philadelphia: Paper presented at NWAV 36.

Kovac (Lucas), Ceil. 1980. Children’s Acquisition of Variable Features. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

Labov, William, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg. 2006. The Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology, and Sound Change. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Larsen, Mogens B. (1972). Introduktion til sociolingvistikken. NyS, Nydanske Sprogstudier, 4(4), 3-17.

Lee, Sinae. 2015. “Creaky voice as a phonational device marking parenthetical segments in talk.” Journal of Sociolinguistics, 19(3), 275-302.

Lee, Sinae. 2016a. “High and Mid Back Vowel Fronting in Washington, D.C.” American Speech 91.4: 425-471.

Lee, Sinae. 2016b. Phonetic Variation in Washington D.C.: Race, Neighborhood, and Gender. PhD dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

Lee, Sinae. 2018a. “Discourse on Southeast’s Bad Reputation: Positioning of African Americans in Washington, D.C.” Discourse & Society 29.4: 420-435.

Lee, Sinae. 2018b. “Patterns of the ‘Mainstream’ Sound Change in a Liminal Region: Low Back Merger in Washington, D.C.” Journal of English Linguistics 46.4: 267-292.

Loflin, Marvin D. 1966. “A note on the deep structure of nonstandard English in Washington, D.C.” Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Loman, Bengt. 1967a. Conversations in a Negro American Dialect. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Loman, Bengt. 1967b. Intonation patterns in a Negro American dialect: A preliminary report. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics. Unpublished manuscript.

Loman, Bengt. 1975. “Prosodic patterns in a Negro American dialect.” Style and text: studies presented to Nils Erik Enkvist, ed. by Håkan Ringbom, Alfhild Ingberg, Ralf Norrman, Kurt Nyholm, Rolf Westman, and Kay Wikberg, 219-42.

Loman, Bengt. 1993. “Bland negrer och sociolingvister – minnen från Washington.” Sociolingvistiske temaer : festskrift til professor Mogens Baumann Larsen. Aalborg: Institut for Kommunikation, Aalborg Universitetscenter. 79-89.

Lucas, Ceil, Robert Bayley, Carolyn McCaskill, and Joseph Hill. 2015. “The Intersection of African American English and Black American Sign Language.” International Journal of Bilingualism 19.2: 156-168.

Lucas, Ceil, and Denise Borders. 1983. “Language Diversity and Classroom Discourse.” American Educational Research Journal 24.1: 119-141.

Lucas, Ceil, and Denise Borders. Language Diversity and Classroom Discourse. Ablex.

Luelsdorff, Philip. 1975. A Segmental Phonology of Black English. The Hague: Walter de Gruyter.

Mallinson, Christine, and Tyler Kendall. 2009. “The way I can speak for myself: the social and linguistic context of counseling interviews with African American adolescent girls in Washington, D.C.” African American Women’s Language. 110-126.

McLarty, Jason, Taylor Jones, and Christopher Hall. 2019. "Corpus-based sociophonetic approaches to postvocalic r-lessness in African American Language." American Speech 94.1: 91-109.

Modan, Gabriella. 2002. “‘Public toilets for a diverse neighborhood’: Spatial purification practices in community development discourse.” Journal of Sociolinguistics 6.4: 487-513.

Modan, Gabriella. 2007. Turf Wars. Oxford: Blackwell.

Nielsen, Rasmus. 2009. “‘I Ain’t Never Been Charged with Nothing!’ The Use of Falsetto Speech as a Linguistic Strategy of Indignation.” University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 15.2: 109-121.

Nielsen, Rasmus. 2012. Reassembling Ethnicity: Stylistic Variation in African American English Prosody. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

Nielsen, Rasmus. 2013. “The stylistic use of prosodic rhythm in African American English.” RASK 37: 301-334.

Nylund, Anastasia. 2011. “Connecting Discourses of Language and Place in Washington, DC.” Texas Linguistics Forum 54.

Nylund, Anastasia. 2013a. Phonological Variation at the Intersection of Ethnoracial Identity, Place, and Style in Washington, D.C. Ph.D. dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, D.C.

Nylund, Anastasia. 2013b. “Constructed Dialogue, Stance, and Ideological Diversity in Metalinguistic Discourse.” In Diversity and Super-diversity: Sociocultural and Linguistic Perspectives, edited by Anna de Fina, Didem Ikizoglu, and Jeremy Wegner. (Proceedings from Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 2015), 133-149. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Nylund, Anastasia. to appear. “(L)-Vocalization in Washington, D.C.: Regional and Ethnoracial Identities in a Contested Boundary Community.” In The International Journal of the Sociology of Language (Special issue on “Living on the Border of Conflicting Communities of Practice”).

Podesva, Robert. J. 2008. “Linking Phonological Variation to Discourses of Race and Place in D.C.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, D.C., November 2008.

Podesva, Robert J. 2013. “Gender and the Social Meaning of Non-Modal Phonation Types.” Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society 37: 427-448.

Podesva, Robert J. 2016. “Stance as a window into the language-race connection.” In Raciolinguistics: How Language Shapes our Ideas about Race, ed. by H. Samy Alim, John R. Rickford, and Arnetha F. Ball, 203-219. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Putnam, George N., and Edna M. O'Hern. 1955. “The Status Significance of an Isolated Urban Dialect.” Language 31.4: v-32.

Quartey, Minnie, and Natalie Schilling. 2019. "Shaping 'connected' versus 'disconnected' identities in narrative discource in D.C. African American Language." American Speech 94.1: 131-147.

Schiffrin, Deborah. 2009. “Crossing Boundaries: The Nexus of Time, Space, Person and Place in Narrative.” Language in Society 38: 421-445.

Schilling, Natalie, and Jermay Jamsu. 2010. “Real-time Data and Communal Change in Washington, D.C., African American Vernacular English.” Paper presented at NWAV 39, San Antonio, TX, November 2010.

Stewart, William A. 1965. “Urban Negro speech: Sociolinguistic factors affecting English teaching.” In Social Dialects and Language Learning, edited by Roger W. Shuy, 10-18. Champaign, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Stewart, William A. 1969a. “Sociolinguistic factors in the history of American Negro dialects.” Florida FL Reporter 5: 1-7.

Stewart, William A. 1969b. “Urban Negro speech: Sociolinguistic factors affecting English teaching.” Florida FL Reporter 7: 50-53.

Stockman, Ida J., and Fay Boyd Vaughn-Cooke. 1982. “A re-examination of research on the language of Black children: The need for a new framework.” Journal of Education 164.2: 57-72.

Stockman, Ida J., Anna Fay Vaughn-Cooke, and Walt Wolfram. 1982. A Developmental Study of Black English – Phase I: Final Report. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Wolfram, Walt. 1984. “A Dialectologist’s Guide to Washington, D.C.” Newsletter of the American Dialect Society (NADS) 16.3: 21-23.

Wolfram, Walt. 1994. “On the Sociolinguistic Significance of Obscure Dialect Structures: The [NPi call NPi V-ing] Construction in African-American Vernacular English.” American Speech 69.4: 339-360.

Selected D.C. Area Sociological/Historical References

Asch, Chris Myers, and George Derek Musgrove. 2017. Chocolate City: A History of Race and Democracy in the Nation's Capital. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Borchert, James. 1980. Alley Life in Washington: Family, Community, Religion, and Folklife in the City, 1850-1970. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Hannerz, Ulf. 1969. Soulside: Inquiries into Ghetto Culture and Community. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.

Hyra, Derek, and Sabiyha Prince, eds. 2015. Capital Dilemma: Growth and Inequality in Washington. Routledge.

McQuirter, Marya Annette. 2000. Claiming the city: African Americans, urbanization, and leisure in Washington, D.C., 1902-1957. Unpublished doctoral dissertation.

McQuirter, Marya Annette. 2003. African American Heritage Trail: Washington D.C. Washington D.C.: Cultural Tourism D.C.

Prince, Sabiyha. 2016. African Americans and gentrification in Washington, D.C.: Race, class and social justice in the nation’s capital. Routledge.

Froyum Roise, Carissa. 2004. “Doing What I Do”: African American Teenagers, Gender, and Sexuality in an Inner City. Master’s thesis, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC.

Sellew, Gladys. 1938. A Deviant Social Situation: A Court. Washington D.C.: Catholic University Press.

Warner, W. Lloyd, Marchia Meeker, and Kenneth Eells. 1960. Social class in America. New York: Harper Torchbooks.

Wilkerson, Isabel. 2010. The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. Vintage.


CRF, November 2019