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Alim, H. Samy, and Geneva Smitherman. 2012. Articulate While Black: Barack Obama, Language, and Race in the U.S. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Arnson, Shelby, and Charlie Farrington. 2017. Twentieth Century Sound Change in Washington DC African American English. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics: Vol. 23 : Iss. 2 , Article 2. 

Barrett, Rusty. 1999. Indexing Polyphonous Identity in the Speech of African American Drag Queens. In Mary Bucholtz, A. C. Liang and Lauren A. Sutton (eds.), Reinventing Identities: The Gendered Self in Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Bell, Alan. 1984. Language Style as Audience Design. Language in Society, 13 (2): 145–204.

Britt, Erica, and Tracey L. Weldon. 2015. African American English in the Middle Class. In Sonja Lanehart (ed). The Oxford Handbook of African American Language. New York: Oxford University Press. 800-816.


Chambers, Jack. 2009. Sociolinguistic Theory, Revised Edition. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Craig, Holly K., and Julie Washington. 2006. Malik goes to school: Examining the language skills of African American students from preschool-5th grade. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Debose, Charles. 1992. Codeswitching: Black English and Standard English in the African‐American Linguistic Repertoire. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 13 (2): 157-167.

Debose, Charles. 2015. The Systematic Marking of Tense, Modality, and Aspect in African American Language. In Sonja Lanehart (ed). The Oxford Handbook of African American Language. New York: Oxford University Press.

Eckert, Penelope. 1989. The Whole Woman: Sex and Gender Differences in Variation. Language Variation and Change 1, 245–67.

Eckert, Penelope. 2000. Linguistic Variation as Social Practice. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ervin-Tripp, Susan M. 2001. Variety, Style-switching, and Ideology. In Penelope Eckert and John R. Rickford (eds.) Style and Variation. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Fasold, Ralph W. 1972. Tense Marking in Black English: A Linguistic and Social Analysis. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Fasold, Ralph W., William Labov, Fay Boyd Vaughn-Cooke, Guy Bailey, Walt Wolfram, Arthur K. Spears, and John R. Rickford (eds.). 1987. Are Black and White Vernacular Varieties Diverging? Papers from the NWVE-16 Panel Discussion. American Speech 56.3–80.

Feagin, Crawford. 1979. Variation and Change in Alabama English: A Sociolinguistic Study of the White Community. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press.

Green, Lisa. 2002. African American English: A Linguistic Introduction. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Holliday, Nicole. 2016. Intonational Variation, Linguistic Style, and the Black/Biracial Experience. PhD. diss., New York University. 

Kendall, Tyler, and Walt Wolfram. 2009. Local and External Language Standards in African American English. Journal of English Linguistics, 37.4: 305-330.

Labov, William. 1966. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Labov, William, Paul Cohen, Clarence Robins, and John Lewis. 1968. A Study of the Non-Standard English of Negro and Puerto Rican Speakers in New York City. Cooperative Research Report 3288. Vols I and II. Philadelphia: U.S. Regional Survey.

Labov, William. 1969. The Logic of Non-Standard English. In J. Alatis (ed.), Georgetown Monograph on Languages and Linguistics, 22: 1-44

Labov, William. 1972. Language in the Inner City: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. 

Labov, William. 1998. “Co-Existent Systems in African-American Vernacular English”. In Mufwene, Salikoko S., John R. Rickford, Guy Bailey, and John Baugh, (eds.), African American English: Structure, History and Use. New York, NY: Routledge.

Lanehart, Sonja (ed.). 2009. African American Women’s Language: Discourse, Education, and Identity. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.

Lanehart, Sonja (ed.). 2015. The Oxford Handbook of African American Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Lanehart, Sonja and Ayesha Malik. 2015. Language Use in African American Communities: An Introduction. In Sonja Lanehart (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of African American Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Mallinson, Christine, and Becky Childs. Communities of Practice in Sociolinguistic Description: Analyzing Language and Identity Practices among Black Women in Appalachia. Gender & Language 1: 173-206.

McLarty, Jason. 2018. African American Language and European American English Intonation Variation Over Time in The American South. American Speech 93.1: 32-78.

Myhill, John. 1988. Postvocalic /r/ as an Index of Integration into the BEV Speech Community. American Speech 63.3: 203-213. 

Nguyen, Jennifer. 2006. The Changing Social and Linguistic Orientation of the African American Middle ClassPhD. diss., University of Michigan.

Nichols, Patricia C. 1983. Linguistic Options and Choices for Black Women in the Rural South. In Barrie Thorne, Cheris Kramarae and Nancy Henley (eds.), Language, Gender and Society. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Poplack, Shana (ed.). 2000. The English History of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell. 

Purnell, Thomas, William Idsardi, and John Baugh. 1999. Perceptual and Phonetic Experiments in American English Dialect Identification. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 18:10-30.

Renn, Jennifer. 2010. Acquiring style: The Development of Dialect Shifting among African American Children. PhD. diss., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Rickford, John R. 1999. African American Vernacular English: Features, Evolution, and Educational Implications. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Rickford, John R., and Mackenzie Price. 2013. Girlz II Women: Age‐grading, Language Change and Stylistic Variation. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 17(2), 143-179.

Schilling-Estes, Natalie. 2002. Investigating Stylistic Variation. In J.K. Chambers, Peter Trudgill, and Natalie Schilling-Estes (eds.), The Handbook of Language Variation and Change. Oxford, UK, and Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Street, R.L., and Howard Giles. 1982. Speech Accommodation Theory: A Social Cognitive Approach to Language and Speech Behavior. In M. Roloff and C.R. Berger (eds.), Social Cognition and Communication. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Thomas, Erik R., and Guy Bailey. 2015. Segmental Phonology of African American English. In Sonja Lanehart (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of African American Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Thomas, Erik R., Norman J. Lass, and Jeannine Carpenter. 2010. Identification of African American Speech. In Dennis R. Preston and Nancy Niedzielski (eds.), A Reader in Sociophonetics. New York, NY: Mouton De Gruyter.

Thomas, Erik R., and Phillip M. Carter. 2006. Prosodic Rhythm and African American English. English World-Wide, 27:3: 331–355. 

Van Herk, Gerard. 2015. The English Origins Hypothesis. In Sonja Lanehart (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of African American Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Van Hofwegen, Janneke. 2015. The Development of African American English through Childhood and Adolescence. In Sonja Lanehart (ed). The Oxford Handbook of African American Language. New York: Oxford University Press.

Weinreich, Uriel, William Labov, and Marvin I. Herzog. 1968. Empirical Foundations for a Theory of Language Variation and Change. In Winfred P. Lehmann and Yakov Malkiel (eds) Directions for Historical Linguistics: A Symposium. Austin: Univeristy of Texas Press.

Weldon, Tracy. 2004. Gullah: Phonology. A Handbook of Varieties of English 1: 2. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Winford, Donald. 2015. The Origins of African American Vernacular English: Beginnings. In Sonja Lanehart (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of African American Language. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 

Wolfram, Walter Andrew. 1969. A Sociolinguistic Description of Detroit Negro Speech. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Wolfram, Walt. 1974. The Relationship of Southern White Speech to Vernacular Black English. Language 50: 498–527.

Wolfram, Walt. 1993. “Identifying and Interpreting Variables”. In Dennis R. Preston (ed.), American Dialect Research. Philadelphia/Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 193-221.

Wolfram, Walt. 2003. “Reexamining the Development of African American English: Evidence from Isolated Communities”. Language 79.282–316.


Wolfram, Walt. 2007. “Sociolinguistic Folklore in the Study of African American English”. Language and Linguistics Compass 1 (4): 292–313.

Wolfram, Walt, and Marcia Farr Whiteman. 1971. The Role of Dialect Interference in Composition. The Florida FL Reporter. 9.34-38. 

Wolfram, Walt, and Erik R. Thomas. 2002. The Development of African American English: Evidence from an Isolated Community. Oxford, U.K. and Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Wolfram, Walt, and Natalie Schilling. 2015. American English: Dialects and Variation, 3rd Edition. Oxford, U.K. and Malden, MA: Blackwell.

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