CORAAL Components


CORAAL: Atlanta, Georgia

CORAAL:ATL consists of 13 primary speakers across 14 recordings. The speakers for these recordings are part of a modern Atlanta friendship sphere, where many of the speakers were not born and raised in Atlanta, but rather moved to the south from other locations. Eight speakers are in Age Group 1 (18-29 years old) and five speakers are in Age Group 2 (30-50 years old). Located in northeastern Georgia, in 2010, the city of Atlanta had a population of 420,003, with the black population accounting for 54% of that population. The Metro Atlanta population was over 5.2 million in 2020. The city is home to the Martin Luther King Jr. National Historic Site, which is to remember and honor African American history throughout hte Civil Rights Movement and Civil War.

Farrington, Charlie, Tyler Kendall, Patrick 'Slay' Brooks, Emma Mullen, and Chloe Tacata. 2020. The Corpus of Regional African American Language: ATL (Atlanta, GA 2017). Version 2020.05. Eugene, OR: The Online Resources for African American Language Project.

Download CORAAL:ATL from CORAAL, or browse the corpus from the CORAAL Explorer!

CORAAL: D.C. (1968)

CORAAL:DCA consists of 68 speakers across 74 recordings, originally collected as part of Ralph Fasold's (1972) foundational study of African American Language in Washington, D.C. (Fasold 1972). The speakers were recorded between March 1968 and August 1969, with dates of birth ranging from 1891 to 1958. The 68 speakers selected for CORAAL are not the exact same set of speakers analyzed by Fasold (1972). We have selected speakers from Fasold’s interviews to best represent four age groups and three social class groups, although a balanced demographic matrix is not possible given the emphasis of the original project on young speakers. The youngest age group has additional speakers for two reasons: there are lots of these speakers in Fasold’s data and their interviews tend to be shorter, so extra speakers were included to increase the amount of total data available for the demographic group. The social class groups are not completely analogous to Fasold’s groups, which are based on the Index of Status Characteristics, but are meant to capture broad social strata. These recordings are publicly available for download through CORAAL and the CORAAL Explorer.

Fasold, Ralph W. 1972. Tense marking in Black English: A linguistic and social analysis. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Kendall, Tyler, Ralph Fasold, Charlie Farrington, Jason McLarty, Shelby Arnson, and Brooke Josler. 2018. The Corpus of Regional African American Language: DCA (Washington DC 1968). Version 2018.10.06. Eugene, OR: The Online Resources for African American Language Project.

Download CORAAL:DCA from CORAAL, or browse the corpus from the CORAAL Explorer!

CORAAL: D.C. (2016)

CORAAL:DCB consists of 48 primary speakers across 63 audio files, collected specifically for CORAAL. The speakers were recorded between July 2015 and December 2017. Speakers were collected through a friend of a friend network to fill the 4 x 3 demographic matrix, as was done for DCA. The socioeconomic groups here are meant to capture broad social strata; the qualitative labels are simple descriptors to help orient users around the ordering. Theses are not meant to represent theoretically motivated socioeconomic assessments of individuals. They are also not intended to be perfectly analogous to Fasold classifications. There are theoretical and practical issues comparing socioeconomic indices in the DC community 50 years apart. We have tried to capture and include in the metadata broad information about speakers’ demographic backgrounds, but leave questions of interpretation up to end-users. These recordings are publicly available through CORAAL and the CORAAL Explorer.

Kendall, Tyler, Minnie Quartey, Charlie Farrington, Jason McLarty, Shelby Arnson, and Brooke Josler. 2018. The Corpus of Regional African American Language: DCB (Washington DC 2016). Version 2018.10.06. Eugene, OR: The Online Resources for African American Language Project.

Download CORAAL:DCB from CORAAL, or browse the corpus from the CORAAL Explorer!

CORAAL: Detroit, MI

CORAAL:DET consists of 36 primary speakers, collected in 1966 and 1967 as part of the Detroit Dialect Study. These recordings were digitized with funding from the Recordings at Risk Project at the Council on Library and Information Resources.

Shuy, Roger W., Walter A. Wolfram, and William K. Riley. 1967. “Linguistic Correlates of Social Stratification in Detroit Speech.” East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University.

———. 1968. Field Techniques in an Urban Language Study. Urban Language Series 3. Washington D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Wolfram, Walter A. 1969. A Sociolinguistic Description of Detroit Negro Speech. Urban Language Series 5. Washington D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Coming soon to CORAAL!

CORAAL: Lower East Side, New York City

CORAAL:LES consists of 10 primary speakers across 15 audio files, collected in 2008 and 2009 by Kara Becker as part of her dissertation research on the Lower East Side (LES) of Manhattan while at New York University. The LES was the site of William Labov’s (1966) early sociolinguistic research on English in New York City. Demographically, the neighborhood changed dramatically between the 1960s and the time of Becker’s (2010) research. As of 2010, most residents (~66%) were non-white with a median income of almost half of the median income for the borough of Manhattan (Becker 2014). These recordings are publicly available through CORAAL and the CORAAL Explorer.

Becker, Kara. 2009. Regional dialect features on the Lower East Side of New York City: Sociophonetics, ethnicity, and idenity. Ph.D. dissertation. New York City: New York University. <Proquest Link>

Becker, Kara, Charlie Farrington, Tyler Kendall, Chloe Tacata, and Jaidan McLean. 2021. The Corpus of Regional African American Language: LES (Lower East Side, NY 2008). Version 2021.07. Eugene, OR: The Online Resources for African American Language Project.

Available for download from CORAAL. Browse CORAAL:ROC in the CORAAL Explorer!

CORAAL: Princeville, North Carolina

CORAAL:PRV consists of 16 primary speakers across 32 audio files, collected by Ryan Rowe, Walt Wolfram, and colleagues for the North Carolina Language and Life Project. Princeville, NC is the oldest town incorporated by African Americans in the United States. Many community members can trace their families back to the original founders of the town. The speakers were recorded between August 2003 and June 2004. As of the 2000 census, African Americans composed 97% of the population (Rowe 2005). These recordings are publicly available through CORAAL and the CORAAL Explorer. Additional recordings may be available through the Sociolinguistic Archive and Analysis Project.

Rowe, Ryan. 2005. The development of African American English in the oldest black town in America: Plural -s absence in Princeville, NC. MA Thesis. Raleigh: North Carolina State University.

Rowe, Ryan, Walt Wolfram, Tyler Kendall, Charlie Farrington, and Brooke Josler. 2018. The Corpus of Regional African American Language: PRV (Princeville, NC 2004). Version 2018.10.06. Eugene, OR: The Online Resources for African American Language Project.

Available for download from CORAAL. Browse CORAAL:PRV in the CORAAL Explorer, and visit Princeville's OLAC entry for SLAAP.

CORAAL: Rochester, New York

CORAAL:ROC consists of 14 primary speakers across 13 audio files, collected in 2016 and 2017 by Sharese King as part of her dissertation research in Rochester, New York. Rochester is a city on Lake Ontario, in Monroe County in western New York state. Since the early twentieth century, Rochester has been home to a large African American population (King 2018). Speakers were provided by King for CORAAL from a larger dataset to fill a 2 x 3 demographic matrix. We do not focus on socioeconomic strata, but focus on providing a distribution across gender and age groups. We have attempted to capture and include in the metadata broad information about speakers’ demographic backgrounds, but leave questions of interpretation up to end users. These recordings are publicly available through CORAAL and the CORAAL Explorer.

King, Sharese. 2018. Exploring social and linguistic diversity across African Americans from Rochester, New York. Ph.D. dissertation. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University.

King, Sharese, Charlie Farrington, Tyler Kendall, Emma Mullen, Shelby Arnson, and Lucas Jenson. 2020. The Corpus of Regional African American Language: ROC (Rochester, NY 2018). Version 2020.05. Eugene, OR: The Online Resources for African American Language Project.

Available for download from CORAAL. Browse CORAAL:ROC in the CORAAL Explorer!

CORAAL: Valdosta, Georgia

CORAAL:VLD consists of 12 primary speakers across 14 recordings, collected in 2017 and 2019 by Minnie Quartey for CORAAL. Located in southern Georgia, Valdosta has a population of over 56 thousand residents, over 51% of whom are African American. Since the early nineteenth century, Valdosta has been home to a large African American population, particularly since the Civil War where it served as a place of refuge for many fleeing other parts of Georgia where more battles were being fought. We have attempted to capture and include in the metadata broad information about speakers’ demographic backgrounds, but leave questions of interpretation up to end-users. These recordings will be publicly available through CORAAL.

Quartey, Minnie, Charlie Farrington, Tyler Kendall, Lucas Jenson, Chloe Tacata, and Jaidan McLean. 2020. The Corpus of Regional African American Language: VLD (Valdosta, GA 2018). Version 2021.07. Eugene, OR: The Online Resources for African American Language Project.

Available for download from CORAAL. Browse CORAAL:ROC in the CORAAL Explorer!

Back to top of page